Fame is gained by doing different missions from different mission/quest giver.
Which Faction should you choose? Well I'm sure a lot of people would love to give you advice on whether you should choose Kami or Karavan, or even stay Neutral, but this thread is just going to explain the choices you 'need' to make, how you make them, and how they will directly affect you - I'm going to try and keep opinions out of this, so if you're looking for an opinion, you're in the wrong place
Just a quick note here (there's a lot more about it in the rest of the post); to gain Fame, you must do missions for the Faction or Race or Tribe you wish to gain Fame with. Usually when you gain Fame with one group you will lose some with another, so be careful! The missions that give the most Fame are the ones that say "will be very grateful" in the description and an example of these are the bandit-killing missions.
For Faction, you have three choices; Kami, Karavan, and Neutral. The one you decide will affect which TPs you can/can't get, which side you will fight on if/when you activate your FvF tag, and which temple guards will/won't attack you (the guards will attack when you have below -50 Fame with them) (Note: There is only one temple in each land - they are not in any towns and you will usually only need to go there to declare your alignment and buy items with Honor Points)
The Race your character actually is has no effect on which Faction you can or can't join - any character can join any Faction. All characters start off neutral and with a starting Fame with each Faction - starting Fame is the only effect your character's Race has.
A Neutral player can have a maximum of 50 Fame with either Faction (ie they can have -100 to +50 Kami and -100 to +50 Karavan). A Faction aligned player can have a maximum of +100 Fame with their chosen Faction and a maximum of -50 with the other Faction (ie a Kami-aligned player can have -100 to -50 Karavan Fame and up to +100 Kami Fame - if their Kami Fame drops below 0 then they will automatically be forced to neutral again - the same goes in reverse for Karavan).
As I've said, everyone starts off Neutral, so if you want to stay that way then skip the rest of this section and go straight to the part about TPs To align yourself with a Faction, you will first need a Fame value of 30 or more with the Faction you have chosen. You can then head to a temple of that Faction - there is one temple of each Faction in every capital zone (Imperial Dunes, Liberty Lake, Witherings, and Majestic Garden) so just ask in /region or /Guild if you need to find it Once at the temple you will have to speak to one of the NPCs and follow their instructions as they guide you through some simple tasks. Once you've completed everything they ask of you, you're aligned with that Faction Now the TPs you can buy will have changed from what it was as a Neutral...
First up, every zone has at least two TPs in it; a Kami and a Karavan. In Tryker, Zorai, and Matis lands the capital zone also has other towns in. These towns each have one TP of the alignment the Race historically favours (Tryker and Matis have Karavan, Zorai has Kami)
Neutral players have a mix of TPs available to them; they can use at least one TP in every zone that isn't a q250 zone, and both TPs at every capital city. In the Fyros desert, since the towns are in different zones, neutrals can use both TPs in the zones with a town in (Pyr, Thesos, Dyron). You can see a full list of Neutral accessible TPs below, courtesy of Petej: (the numbers in [brackets] indicate the level of the zone)
Witherings Cities of Intuition  (Zora) : Kami and Karavan Jen-Lai : No Hoi-Cho : No Min-Cho : No Maiden Grove  : Karavan Haven of Purity  : Kami Grove of Umbra  : Kami and Karavan Knot of Dementia  : Kami and Karavan
Verdant Heights Majestic Garden  (Yrkanis) : Kami and Karavan Natae : No Davae : No Avalae : No Fleeting Garden  : Kami Knoll of Dissent  : Kami and Karavan Hidden Source  : Kami and Karavan Upper Bog  : Karavan Heretics Hovel  : Kami
Aedan Aqueous Liberty Lake  (Fairhaven) : Kami and Karavan Crystabell : No Windermere : No Avendale : No Winds of Muse  : Karavan Dew Drops  : Kami Fount  : Karavan Resting Water  : Kami Bounty Beaches  : Kami and Karavan Enchanted Isle  : Kami
Burning Desert Imperial Dunes  (Pyr) : Kami and Karavan Oflovaks Oasis  : Kami Frahar Towers  : Kami Sawdust Mines  : Karavan Dunes of Exile  (Dyron) : Kami and Karavan Savage Dunes  (Thesos) : Kami and Karavan Outlaw Canyon  : Karavan
For Faction-aligned players, the TPs they can get depends on their Fame value with their chosen Faction. You can only use TPs of the Faction you are aligned to, and require 60+ Fame to get PR TPs, 33+ Fame to get q250 zone TPs.
Summary of TP rulesEdit
Neutral-aligned players can get a mixture of TPs as listed above. Faction-aligned players can only get TPs of the Faction they are aligned with. You need 60+ Fame with a Faction to get PR TPs with the Faction you're aligned with. You need 33+ Fame with a Faction to get q250 zone TPs with the Faction you're aligned with. A (hopefully) accurate map of the availability of all TPs can be found here. I haven't included the PR TPs or the non-capital town TPs in Matis/Tryker/Zorai, but you can see them in the underlying BM map which can be found here (BM site is having problems at time of writing).
As well as being aligned to a Faction, players can also align themselves with a Race (Tryker/Fyros/Matis/Zorai) - again this is completely seperate to which Race your character actually is... you can have a Zorai who is a Matis citizen or a Tryker who is a Zorai citizen, or whatever.
All characters start Race-neutral and can have a maximum value of +50 Fame with all of the Races, and a minimum value of -50 Fame with all of the Races (ie a Race-neutral player may have -50 to +50 Fame with all of the Races - they are not related) As well as starting Race-neutral, characters start with a specific value of Fame with all of the Races - starting Fame is the only effect that your character's actual Race has, but can be easily overcome.
In order to get citizenship of a Race and become aligned with them, you must have a Fame value of at least 30 with that Race. You can then go and find the NPC in the capital city of that Race (ask in region or guild chat to find out where) and once you have followed their instructions you will be aligned with that Race.
The effect of Race Fame is the price you will get when you sell something to a merchant of that Race, and which missions an NPC of that Race will or will not offer you. If you drop below -50 Fame with a Race, the guards in the towns of that Race will attack you on sight. You may buy an appartment in any capital town, not just the one you are aligned with. Race Fame has no effect on which TPs you may or may not buy.
Just as players can align themselves with a Faction and a Race, so can Guilds. A Guild can be Neutral/Kami/Karavan, and also Neutral/Fyros/Matis/Tryker/Zorai. Again, the Faction alignment has no effect on the Race alignment, and neither does the location of the Guildhall - a Guild may align itself in any combination it likes and may purchase a Guildhall in any capital city.
The alignment of a Guild determines which Homins may or may not join the Guild. Since this can sometimes be tricky to get your head round (and to explain) I'll explain it in two ways; from the Guild's point of view, and from the player's point of view:
To align with a Faction or Race, the Guild leader must go to an NPC (at the temple of in the capital city, near to the ones for player alignment) and follow the NPCs instructions. Unlike for players, the Guild doesn't need to have a specific Guild Fame (but the Guild Leader needs to have +30 Fame with the Faction/Race of their choice) and will have its Fame set to +30 in the Faction/Race chosen after the leader has completed the instructions. If the Guild Fame drops below 0 with the Race or Faction it is aligned with, it will automatically become neutral or Race-neutral (depending on which Fame value dropped below 0). Any player who is incompatible with the neutrality of the Guild (ie any player who is aligned with a Faction or Race, depending on which Fame value dropped) will automatically become of Unspecified status (see notes below).
Notes "Going Neutral"Edit
At any time you can open your Fame window and hit the "Go neutral" button for either Faction alignment or Race alignment. This will make you lose the alignment you have (either Race- or Faction-alignment, depending on which button you pressed) and will enforce the Fame caps as detailed above. If your Fame was above 50 then it will be reduced to 50 (either Race or Faction blabla)
A character or a Guild in unspecified status is considered as neutral by the game mechanisms. While in this status, you keep your Fame values unchanged and aren't subject to any cap. However, while in this state, you can't gain or loose Fame. Additionally, a character can't switch to another status when his Guild is also in this state. If your Fame was above 50 with a Race or Faction when you became unspecified, it will stay at that value, but NPCs will act as if it were 50. When you are unspecified, you should take steps to return to neutrality or alignment (you may have to leave your Guild to do this).
The alignment of a Guild has no effect on which outpost it can take - a Guild may take any outpost it can The alignment of a Guild has no effect on which drill it can build on an OP it owns - it can build any drill it likes. The alignment of a player has no effect on which "outpost craft plans" they can get - they can get whatever they have the skill points for.
Currently there are no "FvF" zones on Atys (or "CvC" ones either ), so your alignment currently has no effect on zoned PvP. Neutral players cannot activate any PvP flag - they are always "neutral" in tagged FvF combat. Faction aligned players can activate their FvF flag whenever they wish (according to the associated timers) to participate in tagged FvF combat. You can only attack someone who has a tag of the opposing Faction on; you can't attack neutral players or players who are aligned but without their tag on. Race alignment (or neutrality) currently has no effect on PvP at all.